Figure 2. Graphic credit: By Ehud Tal - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
Figure 1. NASA/JPL Flickr (CC BY 2.0).
Adaptive Capacity—The ability of systems, organizations, and individuals to (1) adjust to actual or potential adverse changes and events; (2) take advantage of existing and emerging opportunities that support essential functions or relationships; or (3) cope with adverse consequences, mitigate damages, and recover from system failures. Adaptive capacity is an indicator of how well a system will adjust to or recover from external changes or large perturbations (e.g., severe floods or droughts). See also “resilience.”
Agricultural water use efficiency—The ratio of the amount of water required to sustain agricultural productivity to the total applied water. Efficiency is increased through the application of less water to achieve the same beneficial productivity or by achieving more productivity while applying the same amount of water.
Anthropogenic—Of human origin or resulting from human activity.
Aquifer—A geologic formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that contains saturated and permeable material capable of transmitting water in sufficient quantity to supply wells or springs and that contains water that is similar throughout in characteristics such as potentiometric head, chemistry, and temperature.
Available groundwater storage capacity—The volume of a groundwater basin that is unsaturated and capable of storing groundwater.
Average annual runoff—The average value of total annual runoff volume calculated for a selected period of record, at a specified location or area.
Beneficial use—(1) As part of the nine regional water quality control boards’ basin planning efforts, up to 25 water-quality beneficial use categories for water have been identified for mostly human and instream uses. From Section 13050(f) of California’s Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act: “‘Beneficial uses’ of the waters of the state that may be protected against water quality degradation include, but are not necessarily limited to, domestic, municipal, agricultural, and industrial supply; power generation; recreation; aesthetic enjoyment; navigation; and preservation and enhancement of fish, wildlife, and other aquatic resources or preserves.” (2) As part of the State Water Resources Control Board’s water rights program, the California Water Code Section 1240 states, “The appropriation must be for some useful or beneficial purpose, and when the appropriator or his successor in interest ceases to use it for such a purpose [typically five years or greater] the right ceases.” In the water rights process, beneficial uses are defined in the California Code of Regulations. Categories of beneficial uses recognized in California include aquaculture, domestic, fire protection, fish and wildlife, frost protection, heat control, industrial use, mining, municipal, power, recreation, stockwatering, and water quality control.
Biosolids—Wastewater treatment residuals, not including material removed during preliminary treatment, treated to levels that allow agronomic use in accordance with federal law.
Catchment—The area of land that catches and collects water above a reservoir or other storage structure.
Climate change—Changes in long-term average temperature, precipitation, wind, or other variables in a specific region.
Consumed Water—Water that does not return to the system for other uses.
Contaminant—Any substance or property preventing the use of, or reducing the usability of, water for ordinary purposes such as drinking, preparing food, bathing, washing, recreation, and cooling. Any solute or cause of change in physical properties that renders water unfit for a given use. (Generally considered synonymous with pollutant.)
Domestic Well—A water supply well used to serve no more than three residences for the purpose of supplying water for drinking, culinary, or household uses, and which is not used as a public water supply.
Green Infrastructure—A subset of natural infrastructure. It mimics natural systems at the neighborhood, or site scale, and can be part of an integrated approach to addressing water management challenges in residential, municipal, and industrial developments. Examples of green infrastructure include eco-roofs, green street swales, and neighborhood natural areas that filter sediment and other pollutants carried by stormwater runoff.
Hydrologic Cycle—The general pattern of water movement by evaporation from sea to atmosphere, by precipitation onto land, and by return to sea under influence of gravity.
Integrated—To make whole by bringing all parts together.
Integrated Pest Management—Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a sustainable, science-based, decision-making process that combines biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools to identify, manage and reduce risk from pests and pest management tools and strategies in a way that minimizes overall economic, health and environmental risks (National IPM Roadmap Definition, updated in 2018).
Integrated Water Resource Management (a.k.a. One Water)—An approach, or process, to managing water that holistically assesses the planning and management of water supply, wastewater, and stormwater systems, focusing on the water cycle as a single connected system while promoting coordinated development and management of water, land, and related resources to maximize the economic and social benefits while minimizing impacts to the environment (American Planning Association 2020).
Natural Infrastructure—The strategic use of natural lands, such as forests and wetlands, and working lands, such as farms and ranches, to meet infrastructure needs. Natural infrastructure can also mimic natural systems to achieve outcomes. Natural infrastructure can be more cost-effective than built infrastructure, and frequently provide a broader suite of environmental, economic, and community benefits.
Permeability—The ability of material to transmit fluid, usually described in units of gallons per day per square foot of cross-section area. It is related to the effectiveness with which pore spaces transmit fluids.
Public Water System—A system for the provision to the public of piped water for human consumption, if such system has more than three service connections or supplies water to a public or commercial establishment that operates a total of at least 60 days per year, and that is used by ten or more individuals per day. Public water system also means a system for the provision to the public of water through constructed conveyances other than pipes to at least 15 service connections or regularly serves at least 25 individuals daily at least 60 days of the year. A public water system is either a "Community Water System," a "Transient Non-Community Water System," a "Non-Transient Non-Community Water System" or a "State Regulated Water System.”
Resilience—The capacity of a resource/natural or constructed system to adapt to and recover from changed conditions after a disturbance.
Stormwater—Stormwater runoff is generated from rain and snowmelt events that flow over land or impervious surfaces, such as paved streets, parking lots, and building rooftops, and does not soak into the ground. The runoff picks up pollutants, such as trash, chemicals, oils, and dirt/sediment that can harm our rivers, streams, lakes, and coastal waters (EPA 2020). Stormwater systems include traditional gray infrastructure, such as storm sewers, as well as green, or nature-based infrastructure.
Wastewater—Wastewater is water that has been used and must be treated before it is released into another body of water so that it does not pollute water sources. Wastewater comes from a variety of sources., including home use (toilets and drains), rainwater and runoff, and agricultural and industrial sources (Safe Drinking Water Foundation 2020).
Water Conservation—Water conservation includes strategies, policies, incentives, outreach, and regulations implemented to efficiently manage water resources to ensure sustainable water supplies for current and future demand (. It addresses both indoor and outdoor water usage.
Water Cycle—The hydrologic cycle that describes the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth.
Water Supply—Water for human use comes from two primary sources—surface water and groundwater. Water supply systems convey, store, treat, and distribute water. Understanding water use helps to evaluate the effects of future development on water supply sources.
Well—Any artificial opening or artificially altered natural opening, however made, by which groundwater is sought or through which groundwater flows under natural pressure, or is artificially withdrawn or injected. This definition shall not include a natural spring, or wells drilled for the purpose of exploration or production of oil or gas. Prospecting or exploration for geothermal resources as defined in ORS 522.005 or production of geothermal resources derived from a depth greater than 2,000 feet as defined in 522.055 is regulated by the Department of Geology and Mineral Industries.